How to grow Strawberries
How to grow Strawberries
Strawberries are everyone's favourite and a popular choice. Strawberries require some time and attention to get a successful crop, but not too much and are easy to grow generally trouble free. Ideally, Strawberries are best planted in autumn, but Strawberries will grow well planted in the Spring although they may produce less fruit the first year. Strawberry plants fruit best in years 2,3,4 and then need replacing. Strawberries prefer good drainage which makes Strawberries ideal for growing in containers. From the flowers, (above centre image) the fruits will form, which are delicate and need protection against dirt splashes and birds. Strawberry fruit is prone to going mouldy if it gets covered in dirty soil from splashes and the birds love strawberries as much as we do. If not protected they will peck at the fruit and it is then spoilt. Some form of netting to protect the strawberries is essential as in image left.
How to plant Strawberries
When growing Strawberries it is important to set the plant at the right level. The crown, which is the bit where the roots and stems meet, should be planted just level with the soil; do not plant too deep as this is one plant which, if the crown is buried under the soil may rot, particularly if the soil is not well drained or a wet summer.
The fruit needs to be protected from the soil and often a mulch of straw or hay is used. I like to use Strulch, which is a light, organic mulch ideal for strawberries. When growing strawberries it is an important step to take the time to cover the growing area with straw or a similar medium, as shown in the image above top left. The plants need to be tucked in with the Strulch close the the plant, so the leaves and fruit are lifted above soil level.
If you are planting strawberries into containers, plant about 5 plants into a 30 cm/12" container.
At the end of the growing season trim down all the leaves and runners (except those used for new plants see below) and feed. The plants will quickly put on new growth.
How to make an easy fruit cage
Netting of some sort is inevitable. Fruit cages can be expensive, but obviously as they are purpose built, very serviceable. Equally useful, and does the job, is a home made cage from bamboo sticks, simple connecting joints sold a DIY stores, (image above left ) net over the top secured by tent pegs. The netting needs to be raised above the strawberry plants, as the birds will still peck at the fruit if the net is on top of the plants, and the plants will grow through the net becoming entangled in the netting making it very hard to remove and pick the fruit. When making the cage push the bamboo canes in as far as they will go to withstand the summer gales.
Growing Alpine Strawberries
Alpine and wild strawberries have become popular, tiny delicate strawberries. If you do grow this variety, a word of warning. Strawberries are a vigorous plant and wild berries even more so. Some years ago I was given a batch of Alpine Strawberries and having at the time nowhere to plant them, in a new garden not yet laid out, I temporarily put them in part of a border with a view to moving them later, which I did. But years later I am still weeding wild strawberry plants out of the borders, where they root mercilessly, and are almost impossible to eradicate.
Strawberries are ideal for growing in containers including wild strawberries. As water and feed are more limited in a container, the Strawberries will need extra attention, more feeding and watering to ensure they don't dry out and will still need protection from the birds.
How to get an early crop of Strawberries
To ensure good fruiting strawberries do need a period of cold during the winter. By about February it is possible to warm up the soil and plants to bring on an earlier crop. Early in the season pick over the plants to remove any dead or diseased leaves and stray runners. Make sure the area is clear of weeds and it is a good idea to add some new compost. Cover the area with a cloche and early in the season I would also seal the ends of the cloche for maximum warmth. As the season warms up remove the cloche ends, and later remover the cloche altogether on warm days to allow the pollinators to get to the plants. It is also necessary as the season goes on to lift and water under the cloche to keep the plants well hydrated. It really does make a difference. Looking at the image on the left, the left hand side of the image where the soil (mulch) is darker is the area which has not been under the cloche and the right side is dryer and has been under a cloche just removed for the image. The strawberry plants on the right are larger and more developed than on the left, they will flower earlier. It does work to cloche them to get an earlier and better crop.
How to get Strawberry plants for free
As the season progresses Strawberry plants put out runners which are leads from the plants with a tiny plant on the end. Mostly these are cut off to encourage the plant to put it's energies into fruiting not making more leaves. Later in the season these runners can be used to make new plants which given the short life of strawberries, 4-5 years helps to replenish the stock of plants.
Take the runner and put a small plant pot filled with good compost underneath sinking the small plant into the pot and leave for a few weeks until well rooted then cut off the runner. Grow on and pot on the small plant putting it into the strawberry bed replacing one of the older plants which is providing less fruit.
The main disease which can be a problem with Strawberries is botrytis, a form of grey mould which more of a problem in cool wet summers. Commercial strawberry growers often spray with fungicides to prevent Botrytis but the problem is more tricky for gardeners. Botrytis lives in dead plant tissue, which means that old strawberry leaves and leaf stalks provide material for the fungus to live on and to produce spores. The infection actually starts during the flowering period, (although it is not visible) although the disease remains inactive until the fruit begins to develop. It causes the fruits to rot as shown in the image below left.
If Botrytis strikes it is best to cut off all infected leaves, together with any leaves showing signs of discolouration, and remove infected fruit. Clear up around all plants to remove any decaying leaves. To increase air circulation remove some extra (healthy) leaves, stake the plants to keep upright and allow the air to circulate and hope for a dry spell for the plants to recover. The images below show that you can cut off a good amount of the leaves, Strawberries are vigorous plants, and as you remove leaves you will see at the base of the plant fresh leaves growing so be bold and cut to try and stop the infection. Botrytis will attack all parts of the Strawberry plant and the fruit will rot before it ripens, very frustrating and given our propensity to wet summers it can be problem. As always with plant diseases, do not compost the leaves and waste material.
Strawberry plants only live for 4-5 years and so if it is a bad attack, and the plants are getting elderly, consider if this is time to replace them.
Sunday Gardener's Blog Growing Strawberries and Botrytis